Five Elements of Fiction:
Setting - Time and location that a story takes place. When examining how setting contributes to a story, there are multiple aspects to consider:
1) Place - Geographical location; where is the action of the story taking place?
2) Time - Historical period, time of day, year, etc; when is the story taking place?
3) Weather conditions - Is it rainy, sunny, stormy, etc?
4) Social conditions - What is the daily life of the character's like? Does the story contain local colour (writing that focuses on the speech, dress, mannerisms, customs, etc. of a particular place)?
5) Mood or atmosphere - What feeling is created at the beginning of the story? Cheerful or eerie?
Character - There are two meanings for "character": 1) a person in a fictional story; or 2) qualities of a person.
1) People in a work of fiction can be a(n):
• Protagonist - Clear center of story; all major events are important to this character.
• Antagonist - Opposition or "enemy" of main character.
2) Characteristics of a character can be revealed through:
• his/her physical appearance
• what he/she says, thinks, feels, dreams and what he/she does or does not do
• what others say about him/her and how others react to him/her
PLOT -- The plot is how the author arranges events to develop his basic idea; It is the sequence of events in a story or play. The plot is a planned, logical series of events having a beginning, middle, and end. The short story usually has one plot so it can be read in one sitting. There are five essential parts of plot:
a) Introduction - The beginning of the story where the characters and the setting is revealed.
b) Rising Action - This is where the events in the story become complicated and the conflict in the story is revealed (events between the introduction and climax).
c) Climax - This is the highest point of interest and the turning point of the story. The reader wonders what will happen next; will the conflict be resolved or not?
d) Falling action - The events and complications begin to resolve themselves. The reader knows what has happened next and if the conflict was resolved or not (events between climax and conclusion).
e) Conclusion - This is the final outcome or untangling of events in the story.
Point of View - The angle from which the story is told. There are several variations of POV:
1) First Person - Story told by the protagonist or a character who interacts closely with the protagonist or other characters; speaker uses the pronouns "I", "me", "we". Readers experiences the story through this person's eyes and only knows what he/she knows and feels.
2) Third Person - Story told by a narrator who sees all of the action; speaker uses the pronouns "he", "she", "it", "they", "his", "hers", "its", and "theirs". This person may be a character in the story. There are several types of third person POV:
• Limited - "limited" POV funnels all action through the eyes of a single character; readers only see what the narrator sees.
• Omniscient- God-like, the narrator knows and sees everything, and can move from one character's mind to another.
3) Innocent Eye/Naive Narrator - Story told through child's eyes; narrator's judgment is different from that of an adult.
4) Stream of Consciousness - Story told so readers solely experience a character's thoughts and reactions.
Theme - Central message, "moral of the story," and underlying meaning of a fictional piece; may be the author's thoughts on the topic or view of human nature.
1) Story's title usually emphasizes what the author is saying.
2) Various figures of speech (symbolism, allusion, simile, metaphor, hyperbole, or irony) may be utilized to highlight the theme.
3) Examples of common themes occurring in literature, on television, and in film are:
• Things are not always as they appear to be.
• Love is blind.
• Believe in yourself.
• People are afraid of change.
• Don't judge a book by its cover.
ROPES WRITING STRATEGY
First, let’s learn what R.O.P.E.S. stands for. Here is a sample question that we will use as an example.
~ What is your favourite season and why do you like it?
R- Restate the question. When you give a complete answer you always need to restate the question first. If you’re answering in complete sentences you cannot just answer “autumn.”
My favourite season is autumn,
O – State the opinion or fact. If you’re answering from personal experience or what you think, you need to give an opinion. If you’re answering a technical question about something learned in class, you need to state a fact. Here, because it’s personal, we will use an opinion.
because it makes me feel refreshed.
P –Use proof or an example. This is where most people stop. After all, it’s your opinion, right? Well, if it’s your opinion, you should be able to explain why you feel that way. If not, you leave the reader to decide whether your opinion makes sense. If it is a fact, you need to back it up with proof from your notes or the textbook. So, we’re answering the question, “Why does autumn make you feel refreshed?”
We get a fresh start to the new school year in a new grade, meet new friends and get new school supplies. Everything is clean and new.
E –Give another example. OK, now your teacher knows why you feel refreshed. I’m sure there are more reasons why autumn is your favourite, but here is a good place to expand your answer and say why it is better than the other seasons.
I like that the weather gets cooler in autumn after a hot summer. It’s easier to do sports outside when it’s not too hot and not too cold. In the spring, the ground is still wet and I usually have too much school work to do to enjoy being outside.
S –Summarize your answer Now you’ve mentioned why you like autumn and how it compares to the other seasons. Again, if you were writing an essay you could give more opinions and more examples for each. If it is a short answer, you need a one-sentence summary of your answer.
There are things I like about each season, but I love autumn the most because of the fresh start it gives me.
Literature Circle Roles
Name:___________________ Book/Article Title:________________________
Your job is to dig up some background information on any topic related to your book.
This might include:
• the geography, weather, culture, or history of the book’s setting
• information about the author — her/his life and other works
• information about the time period portrayed in the book
The idea is to find bits of information or material that helps others to better understand the book. Investigate something that really interests you — something that struck you as puzzling or curious while you were reading.
Write up at least two paragraphs that explain what it was you researched.
Name: _____________ Book/Article: ____________________
Draw a picture of one scene from the section of the book you’re reading. It can be a sketch, cartoon, or diagram. Your picture should be colourful and have lots of details. It can be about something that you read or an element of the story (plot, character, setting). Then, write a description of what is happening in the scene (4-6 sentences).
When you meet with your group:
Have each member of the group share what is happening in the scene.
Name____________________________ Book/Article Title________________________
As the Word Wizard, it is your job to look for especially important vocabulary words within the text.
If you find words that are important, unfamiliar, different, puzzling, funny, used in an unusual way, or simply interesting, mark them down while you are reading. You may also run across familiar words that stand out somehow in the reading — words that are repeated a lot or provide a key to the meaning of the text.
List a minimum of 4 words you feel are worth looking at more closely. Make sure to write down the page and paragraph numbers. Then, look up the word and provide a clear definition that connects to how it was used in the text. Finally, explain why you chose each word.
Word #1- Ruins
Page & Paragraph:
Reason word was selected:
- Title: 12 font, Times New Roman, Bold not underlined- Creative title related to your thesis.
- Five Paragraphs: 12 Font, Times New Romans, Indent each paragraph, essay has to have five paragraphs (Introduction, First Argument, Second Argument, Third Argument, Conclusion).
- Works Cited: Should have any websites you used in your essay.
Radio Announcements Listen to the samples of persuasive advertisements. What strategies are they using? What kind of word choice, tone of voice?
Write on Reader Great website with lots of information inlcuding advice, writing examples, word games and SO much more!
OWL Check out this great online magazine, you can link to either Chirp, Chickadee, or Owl!
Writing Fun! Learn about text features and when they are best used as well as access great organizers to get yourself started. Click on the text feature and find a number of examples!
Two Minute Mysteries Check out these two minute mysteries and test your ability to solve them! Remember to listen for clues and red herrings!
Cursive Practice Here you can create your own worksheets to practice your cursive skills at home!
Comprehension Strategies Trying to figure out what reading strategies are? Want to find ways to improve your comprehension (and get better grades?!), check out the link to learn more!
Syntax Learn about the about English language sentence structure such as subject/predicate, sentence fragments and rambling sentences. Great source for personal learning!
Letter Writer Learn about the parts of a letter and write your own letters, all on-line!
Advertising Tricks Don't be fooled! Learn all about the tricks advertisers like to try and play on people.
Speed Test Test your typing skills!
Media Awareness This site offers valuable resources and support for everyone interested in media and information literacy for young people. There are great games, internet awareness information and strategies on how to sift through information to find true, legitimate resources
Into the Book This is a reading comprehension resource that focuses on eight research-based strategies: Using Prior Knowledge, Making Connections, Questioning, Visualizing, Inferring, Summarizing, Evaluating and Synthesizing.
Kids Reads Learn about your favourite author
Proofreading Makes Sense Want to be a better writer? Practice your proofreading skills here!
Spell-a-Roo Find the spelling mistakes and be taken to the Land of Joey's
Fun Brain Have fun playing Mad Libs!
6 Traits of Writing Help yourself become a better writer! Check out the 6 writing traits (Ideas, Organization, Voice, Sentence Fluency, Word Choice and Conventions)